HTML5 and the evolution of HTML; tracing the origins of digital platforms

Software development

HTML5 and the evolution of HTML; tracing the origins of digital platforms

This element, which may have NAME and CONTENT attributes to hold name/value pairs, is widely used for recording descriptive or administrative metadata for the document. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which had taken over HTML development,

  • A document sent with the XHTML MIME type is expected to be well-formed XML; syntax errors may cause the browser to fail to render it.
  • HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes.
  • “We’ve come a long way since HTML could barely handle a simple page layout.
  • If there was a problem, a specific HTML file was generated and included a description of the problem for human consumption.
  • Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages.
  • The added utilities included the simplified document declaration to .

attempted to create some standardization in HTML 3.0. But there was so much
argument over what should be included that it never got beyond the draft discussion
The proposal was rejected on the grounds that the proposal conflicted with the previously chosen direction for the Web’s evolution; the W3C staff and membership voted to continue developing XML-based replacements instead. There are some WYSIWYG editors (What You See Is What You Get), in which the user lays out everything as it is to appear in the HTML document using a graphical user interface (GUI), often similar to word processors. The editor renders the document rather than showing the code, so authors do not require extensive knowledge of HTML. The HTML Living Standard, which is developed by WHATWG, is the official version, while W3C HTML5 is no longer separate from WHATWG. Comments can help in the understanding of the markup and do not display in the webpage.

Table of Contents

HTML is a Hypertext Markup language that is an essential component of the internet. HTML can be compared to the layout, design, or skeleton of a web page. The entire web page is constructed from HTML building blocks or elements. Instead of defining all features in a single, large specification like CSS 2, CSS 3 is divided into several separate documents called “modules”. Each module adds new capability or extends features defined in CSS 2, over preserving backward compatibility. Work on CSS level 3 started around the time of publication of the original CSS 2 recommendation.

HTML 5 continues to evolve and is supported by all of the biggest browsers such as Firefox, Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Opera and Edge. Created in 1995, this version was a significant improvement to HTML 1.0. “HTML 2.0 becomes the first official set of standards for HTML — the base standard by which all browsers were measured until HTML 3.2.” (Bartels, 2011). It was able to support the changing of a page background, text colour, text face, the use of tables and text boxes etc.

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This is now considered to be the official start of the World Wide Web as a public project. As of 2018, many email systems support a subset of HTML for messages. Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist and academic, was the primary author of HTML, with the assistance of his colleagues at CERN, an international scientific organization based in Geneva.

An HTML element is an individual document component with content and markup. These contain tags or instructions to format and display the content. This version of HTML, created in 1999, included cascading style sheets (css) which allowed aspects such as text, colour, font and backgrounds to be easily altered.

Format specifications

HTML5 has added support for many new features that will make it possible to do more with HTML, without relying on non-standard proprietary technologies. The first version of HTML was written by Tim Berners-Lee in 1993. The most widely used version throughout the 2000’s was HTML 4.01, which became an official standard in December 1999. The extensibility of HTTP made it easy to create new headers and methods.

html5 application development

The next major version of HTTP, HTTP/3 has the same semantics as earlier versions of HTTP but uses QUIC instead of TCP for the transport layer portion. This happened in parallel to the diverse implementations of HTTP/1.0. The first standardized version of HTTP, HTTP/1.1, was published in early 1997, only a few months after HTTP/1.0. If there was a problem, a specific HTML file was generated and included a description of the problem for human consumption. It was later dubbed HTTP/0.9 and is sometimes called the one-line protocol.
Plus, HTML 4.0 adopted the Universal Character Set as a character set. After the creation of HTML 2.0, people started wanting to do more with HTML. A company called Netscape had a browser called ‘Netscape Navigator’, the leading browser during this time, and they began to introduce new abilities called ‘Netscape extension tags’. Other browsers tried to recreate these tags to keep up with the current trends, however they were unable to get them to display in the same way. This meant that pages which were created using Netscape extension tags ended up looking bad in other browsers. Most pages on the Web today were built using either HTML 4.01 or XHTML 1.0.
This alternative way of exchanging data between client and server amassed interest from developers working on both browsers and servers. SPDY defined an increase in responsiveness and solved the problem of duplicate data transmission, serving as the foundation for the HTTP/2 protocol. HTML was developed specifically to support linking among online resources. Compared with other digital formats used for primarily textual document-like content, the HTML format has been extended to support embedded audio and video and the development of interactive applications. This
is a reformulation of HTML 4.01 within XML (Extensible Markup Language), which
is far more rigorous, and is intended to start moving the creation of Web pages
away from HTML.
This added
features like tables, and text flowing around images, to the official specification,
Evolution of HTML
while maintaining backwards compatibility with HTML 2.0. This also is a convenient

place for marking the divergence in practice from the separation that Berners-Lee
Evolution of HTML
first made between logical structures and presentational elements. And as the
Web took off in popularity, this breakdown became widespread and serious.
It aimed to address some of the limitations of HTML, such as its inconsistent handling of tags and attributes and its tendency to produce malformed or poorly structured code. XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language) is a markup language that is derived from HTML (HyperText Markup Language). It was developed to provide stricter rules for creating web pages that could be read by both humans and machines. HTML 3.0 also added support for new form elements, such as drop-down menus, radio buttons, and checkboxes. These features made it easier to create complex forms and collect data from users.
Along with these, to create very effective sites, HTML’s revised standards and specifications are implemented. By carefully following the W3C’s compatibility guidelines, a user agent should be able to interpret the document equally as HTML or XHTML. For documents that are XHTML 1.0 and have been made compatible in this way, the W3C permits them to be served either as HTML (with a text/html MIME type), or as XHTML (with an application/xhtml+xml or application/xml MIME type). When delivered as XHTML, browsers should use an XML parser, which adheres strictly to the XML specifications for parsing the document’s contents. Most graphical email clients allow the use of a subset of HTML (often ill-defined) to provide formatting and semantic markup not available with plain text. This may include typographic information like colored headings, emphasized and quoted text, inline images and diagrams.
He has been involved in different international collaborative research projects such as PLUS (Horizon 2020) OPENMAKER (Horizon 2020), New HoRRIzon (Horizon 2020), InnoSI (Horizon 2020) or OD&M (Erasmus+). Nowadays, his research is tightly related to digital cultures, user innovation and responsible innovation. This work was supported by the funds received by the Emaitek Program of the Basque Government, oriented to support Technology Centers and their corporations and technological alliances. Shortly thereafter, Apple, Mozilla, and Opera jointly announced their intent to continue working on the effort under the umbrella of a new venue called the WHATWG. A public mailing list was created, and the draft was moved to the WHATWG site.
The Frameset version includes everything in the Transitional version, as well as the frameset element (used instead of body) and the frame element. A well-formed XHTML document adheres to all the syntax requirements of XML. A valid document adheres to the content specification for XHTML, which describes the document structure. In modern browsers, the MIME type that is sent with the HTML document may affect how the document is initially interpreted. A document sent with the XHTML MIME type is expected to be well-formed XML; syntax errors may cause the browser to fail to render it. The same document sent with the HTML MIME type might be displayed successfully since some browsers are more lenient with HTML.

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