How to Calculate Amortization on Patents: 10 Steps with Pictures


How to Calculate Amortization on Patents: 10 Steps with Pictures

In this article, we highlight the two categories of expenses (fixed and variable) before diving into some of the main types of operating expenses that businesses encounter. Some investors and analysts maintain that depreciation expenses should be added back into a company’s profits because it requires no immediate cash outlay. These analysts would suggest that Sherry was not really paying cash out at $1,500 a year. They would say that the company should have added the depreciation figures back into the $8,500 in reported earnings and valued the company based on the $10,000 figure.

Whether it is a company vehicle, goodwill, corporate headquarters, or a patent, that asset may provide benefit to the company over time as opposed to just in the period it is acquired. To more accurately reflect the use of these types of assets, the cost of business assets can be expensed each year over the life of the asset. The expense amounts are then used as a tax deduction, reducing the tax liability of the business. One significant advantage of depreciation is that it allows companies to spread out the cost of an asset over its useful life instead of taking one large expense in the year it was purchased. This helps companies avoid a sudden reduction in profits and cash flow while accurately reflecting expenses on financial statements.


Since part of the payment will theoretically be applied to the outstanding principal balance, the amount of interest paid each month will decrease. Your payment should theoretically remain the same each month, which means more of your monthly payment will apply to principal, thereby paying down over time the amount you borrowed. The total payment stays the same each month, while the portion going to principal increases and the portion going to interest decreases. In the final month, only $1.66 is paid in interest, because the outstanding loan balance at that point is very minimal compared with the starting loan balance.

  • Some investors and analysts maintain that depreciation expenses should be added back into a company’s profits because it requires no immediate cash outlay.
  • Since depreciation and amortization are not typically part of cost of goods sold—meaning they’re not tied directly to production—they’re not included in gross profit.
  • You can calculate these amounts by dividing the initial cost of the asset by the lifetime of it.
  • Cost of goods sold (COGS) / cost of sales (COS) – money spent providing your goods or services to customers.
  • Depreciation refers to physical things that wear out, like work tools.

You can find interest expense on your income statement, a common accounting report that’s easily generated from your accounting program. Interest expense is usually at the bottom of an income statement, after operating expenses. Per generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), businesses amortize intangibles over time to help tie the cost of an asset to the revenues it generates in the same accounting period. For tax purposes, the cost basis of an intangible asset is amortized over a specific number of years, regardless of the actual useful life of the asset (as most intangibles don’t have a set useful life). The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) allows intangibles to be amortized over a 15-year period if it’s one of the ones included in Section 197.

Amortization is important because it helps businesses and investors understand and forecast their costs over time. In the context of loan repayment, amortization schedules provide clarity concerning the portion of a loan payment that consists of interest versus the portion that is principal. This can be useful for purposes such as deducting interest payments on income tax forms. It is also useful for planning to understand what a company’s future debt balance will be after a series of payments have already been made. Because depreciation and amortization expenses are deducted from a company’s revenues when calculating its taxable income, they can affect how much tax a business owes each year. While this isn’t necessarily a negative aspect of these methods themselves, it does mean that companies need to carefully consider the long-term tax implications of using them.

By reporting interest expense as a non-operating expense, it’s also easier to analyze a company’s financial position. Profit is calculated by first taking into account total operating expenses. Non-operating expenses are then deducted, which can quickly show owners how debt is affecting their company’s xero band profitability. Obviously, companies with less debt are more profitable than companies with more debt. For example, a fast-growing manufacturing company may present increasing sales and EBITDA year-over-year (YoY). To expand rapidly, it acquired many fixed assets over time and all were funded with debt.

A single lease expense

The annual depreciation expense on a straight-line basis is the $32,000 cost basis minus the expected salvage value—in this case, $4,000—divided by eight years. The annual deprecation for the truck would be $3,500 per year, or ($32,000 – $4,000) ÷ 8. As stated earlier, in most cases, depreciation and amortization are treated as separate line items on the income statement. As stated earlier, gross profit is calculated by subtracting COGS from revenue.

With a finance lease, there’s an interest expense and an amortization expense. To highlight this difference, the below chart compares the difference between the income statement impact of an operating lease and a finance lease. Operating expenses are necessary and unavoidable for most businesses. Some firms successfully reduce operating expenses to gain a competitive advantage and increase earnings.

Examples of Intangible Assets

A small cloud-based software business borrows $5000 on December 15, 2017 to buy new computer equipment. The interest rate is 0.5 percent of the loan balance, payable on the 15th of each month. Interest payable is an account on a business’s income statement that show the amount of interest owing but not yet paid on a loan. Let’s say a business has total annual earnings before tax of $100,000. If the tax rate is 30%, the owner would normally need to pay $30,000 in taxes. But, if they have an interest expense of $500 that year, they would pay only $29,500 in taxes.

Understanding Operating Expenses

An amortization schedule is used to reduce the current balance on a loan—for example, a mortgage or a car loan—through installment payments. Whilst for a finance lease, the standard states for cash paid, you should disclosure those cashflows between operating and financing. Generally, the payment attributed to interest is seen as a financing cash outflow, whilst the principle payments can be classified as operating. This is one area of compliance many companies fall short on because of the required amount of work required to calculate the principal and interest portion of the payment.

Nevertheless, the fundamental accounting of the present valuing the future lease payments and recognizing a liability and asset has not changed. While there are some drawbacks to using depreciation and amortization as accounting methods for asset valuation, many businesses still find them useful tools for managing their finances effectively. The calculation for depreciation and amortization involves several factors such as initial cost, useful life expectancy, residual value and method used.

There are several ways to calculate the amortization of intangibles. The most common way to do so is by using the straight line method, which involves expensing the asset over a period of time. Amortization is calculated by taking the difference between the cost of the asset and its anticipated salvage or book value and dividing that figure by the total number of years it will be used. The source of the depreciation expense determines whether the expense is allocated between cost of goods sold or operating expenses.

A company’s senior management tries to reduce operating expenses and utility costs by outsourcing areas of the business or allowing some of the existing staff to work from home. This cuts down on the actual physical space needed for staff at the office. Management also implements money-saving techniques such as automating parts of the business or reducing salaries for new hires.

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